How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

How to do calligraphy with a pen is a bit challenging but at the same time fulfilling. There are many ideas in the world, and we will try our best to collect quality ideas on how to do calligraphy for you. Calligraphy is an art that has been practiced since ancient times. It was first used by Chinese people as a form of writing but it has evolved into something much more than just writing.

There are many ways to write letters or words using different calligraphy tools such as pens, pencils, brushes, etc. But when it comes to doing calligraphy with a pen, there are some things that need to be considered, but they are not easy for everyone to learn. If you want to learn how to do calligraphies easily, then you can continue reading this article until the end. This way, you will have no problem learning how to do calligraphies even if you have never done any before. So let’s get started!

Calligraphy History | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

Handwritten calligraphy has been practiced for thousands of years across cultures and countries. It is the careful process of writing letters by hand into works of art. It comes from the Greek word for "beauty" (kallos) and the verb "to write" (graphẽ). Calligraphy is especially noteworthy in both eastern and western cultures.

A traditional calligraphy is an art form that has been practiced for thousands of years. Calligraphy has gone from being used for painstakingly decorating scriptures to using it in wedding invitations, logos, typography, mapmaking, and even on social media. On every single explore page, there are thousands of videos dedicated to the slow, meditative practice of modern calligraphy.

If you've ever been amazed by these seemingly effortless swoops of letters and are eager to give them a go yourself, then you're in the right spot. Here we explain the basics so you know where to start.

Types Of Calligraphy Pens | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

Calligraphy is not just writing beautiful words. You also need the correct calligraphy tools if you want the most effective results. You can use ordinary ballpoint pens and pencils to practice writing your letters, but you might want to consider upgrading them once you start a calligraphic project. A good pen makes writing easy and helps create beautiful, smooth lines on paper.

When choosing which pen to use in calligraphy, you should consider several factors. You want to choose a pen that has resilient brush tips. Try out different pens to see which one works best for you depending on whether you're looking for something basic or high-end. There are basically two types of pens used in calligraphy: brush pen calligraphy and dip pens. However, there are different kinds of brushes and dips for each technique, so there isn't really any single type of pen that works well for every technique.

There are more types of pens used for calligraphy than you might think. And also the most common type of pen used for calligraphy is the fountain pen. However, other types include rollerball, gel ink, ballpoint, felt tip, brush, and dip pen. Each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. Below are the used of them :

Dip Pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

The dip pen is the easiest to use because all you need to do is dip the nib section into the ink and begin drawing. Dip pens are great for beginners because they don't require any special equipment. They also work well for creating large designs.

The dip pen allows a choice between the standard, straight style and the easier-to-use oblique pen style. A nib made from an oblique calligraphic pen allows the user to easily exert even pressure on both sides of the nib section. For right-handed people, this makes writing easier. Both types of fountain pen nibs may be used for calligraphic purposes, but personal preferences and desired styles will likely cause you to favor one type over the other.

Interchangeable nibs are also good for beginners who are looking to buy their first calligraphy fountain pens. They offer a wide range of options to choose from, including fine points, broad points, extra fine points, and italic nibs.

Fountain Pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

The fountain pen is the most versatile pen for calligraphy. You can use it to create small details like handwriting, lettering, and decorative elements. Fountain pens come in various sizes, shapes, colors, and materials. Some models are made out of metal while others are plastic.

A fountain pen ink is generally a little messier than a ballpoint pen but can be an excellent choice for beginners. You don't need to pause every time you want to write something down. Instead, you simply push the button and keep going.

Ballpoint Pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

The ballpoint pen is another popular option for calligraphy. It's a bit smaller than a fountain pen and requires less maintenance. Ballpoints are often preferred by artists who prefer to draw rather than write.

You'll find a wide variety of ballpoint pens available at your local office supply store. Most ballpoint pens have a reservoir inside the barrel which holds enough calligraphy ink to last about 100 pages. This means you won't need to refill the pen as often.

Rollerball Pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

The rollerball pen is similar to a ballpoint pen except it uses a different kind of ink cartridge or ink converter. Rollerballs are usually found in black or blue color options. These pens are ideal for those who enjoy writing but aren't interested in calligraphy.

Gel Ink Pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

Gel ink pens are very popular among calligraphers because they produce beautiful results. Also, gel ink pens are typically sold in sets that contain several different colors. When choosing a calligraphy set, make sure the colors complement each other.

For example, if you choose red, green, and yellow, the colors should look harmonious together. If you're looking for a specific color, you can always buy individual bottles of gel ink.

Brush Pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

The brush pen is a good alternative for calligraphers who enjoy painting. Brushes are useful for adding texture to a design. For instance, you could add some shading to a flower using a brush pen. Brush pens are also useful when creating fine lines.

Brush calligraphy is not only fun but also relaxing. There are many ways to practice using brushes. You could try painting on paper, canvas, wood, or anything else that has a smooth surface.

Felt Tip Pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

The felt tip pens is a popular tool for calligraphers. Felt tips are durable and easy to clean. They are also inexpensive and widely available.

If you plan to practice calligraphy regularly, consider buying a felt tip pen. You can purchase them individually or in sets.

Tombow Dual Brush pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

This pen has two brushes attached to the end of the barrel. One side contains a fine point and the other side contains a broad point. You can switch back and forth between these points depending on what effect you'd like to achieve.

It's important to note that not all felt tips are created equal. Some brands of felt tips are more expensive than others. Make sure you get quality felt tips before spending money on them.

Pointed Pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

This type of pen is good for calligraphy because it produces crisp lines. Pointed pen calligraphy is perfect for beginners.

Some pointed pens feature nibs that allow you to change the width of the line. For example, you could use a narrow nib to write a thin line or a wider nib to write a thicker line.

Oblique Pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

An oblique pen is designed specifically for calligraphy. The nib is angled so that you can create curved lines.

These types of pens are great for practicing handwriting. You can easily see how well you've mastered the art of cursive writing.

Normal Pen | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

A normal pen is an excellent choice for calligraphy. Normal pens are made from graphite, which makes them perfect for drawing straight lines.

They come in various sizes and hardness levels. Choose one that feels comfortable in your hand.

How To Do Calligraphy Pens

How To Do Calligraphy Pens

The most important thing about calligraphy is having good quality materials. Calligraphy pens and nibs are made of metal, plastic, or glass. They all work differently, and each type comes with its own calligraphy set of pros and cons. For example, metal nibs, flex nibs, or italic nibs tend to be heavier than their counterparts, which means they require more pressure to write. However, they also last longer and don't wear out easily. Glass nibs are usually thinner than metal ones, and they're great for beginners who aren't sure how much pressure to apply. Plastic nibs are lightweight, inexpensive, and durable. They're perfect for beginners who want to experiment with calligraphy without spending too much money.

Doing calligraphy using pen is a fun way to express yourself creatively. It's also a great hobby to pursue as a form of relaxation. There are many ways to learn about this craft. You can find books at bookstores or online. There are also classes offered by local schools and universities.

You may even be able to take a class through your local library. In addition to learning new skills, you'll have plenty of time to relax and unwind. First of all, there are some basics you need to know before starting.

Ink Selection | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

When it comes to selecting a calligraphy ink, there aren't any hard and fast rules. If you like the look of the color and think it performs well enough for you, then go ahead and use it. If you're just starting out using a dip pen, then choose an bottled ink for calligraphy. It's water resistant when wet, fairly inexpensive, and easy to locate.

The cartridge filled pen is used to create the ink strokes. The nib is dipped into the ink cartridge to fill the reservoir. The nib is held perpendicular to the page and moved across the paper.

If you're using a fountain pen for writing, most pens come with ink cartridges so they don't need refilling. If there aren't any cartridges included, a quick search online for "ink cartridges" from the manufacturer of your pen is a good place to start when looking for replacement cartridges.

Pick Your Paper | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

If you're just practising calligraphy, then a good quality paper is essential. If the paper is not smooth enough, you may have trouble rendering characters correctly. And if the paper is too rough for the calligraphy pen, the nib may get scratched and caught, which could cause the tip of the pen to become dull or even break.

Ink shouldn't bleed through the paper, so it's important for the paper to be thick enough to prevent that. A good quality paper absorbs the ink well so there aren't any streaks or smears.

Calligraphy Fountain Pens | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

Insert the cartridge into the pen first. Most pens have barrels that screw off to reveal an empty space where you can insert ink cartridges. When your cartridge pen is fully inserted into the pen, press firmly until you hear a clicking sound.

Your new fountain pen is ready to use. You may have to write down some notes while waiting for the ink to start flowing, but once it starts flowing smoothly, things will go well.

If you want to change the color of your ink, just take out the old cartridge and rinse the nib by filling and emptying it with water several times. After running the nib through the fountain pen, let it dry out completely before replacing the ink cartridge.

It's always a good idea to clean your fountain pen after changing its ink cartridge. Even if the new ink is the same color as the old one, removing any dust or dried ink helps prevent clogging. It ensures a consistent flow and length of time for the fountain pen.

Calligraphy Dip Pens | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

Dip pens require a bit more effort than ballpoint pens. Once you've selected the type of pen you want to buy, either pour it into a pen holder or use the container it comes in. Dip the pen into the ink. To fill up the ink reservoir in the pen, just dip the whole thing into the ink well.

After that, shake your pen so that any extra ink drops back into the inkwell. To avoid any unsightly splatterings that could result from having too much ink. When you run out of ink for the first time, follow these steps to refill the pen's ink reservoir again.

You need to keep a bottle of water close by at all times. Swish the tip of your pen in it every few minutes. It helps keep things flowing and washes away any gunk that may have built up on or in the nibs. After you've finished writing, be sure to clean the nib by wiping off any excess water or ink using a non-fibre paper towel. It ensures that no ink has been congealed onto the nib and that it has been cleaned and stored properly so that it can be used again.

Pen Calligraphy Tips

  • When using either fountain or ink pens, it's essential to hold them at a 45 to 55 degree pen angle when writing. This is the optimum temperature range for a smooth, controllable ink flow.
  • Don't press too hard when writing with a fountain pen, because that could damage the nib. Instead, relax your arm and allow your pen to glide smoothly across the page.
  • Instead of using your wrist or fingers to guide the pen, use your arm instead. It will help you type for longer without your hands becoming cramped up.
  • It's an art and it takes time and patience to become good at calligraphy. Don't let some minor ink splatters discourage you from trying out new techniques. If you keep working at it, you'll eventually get good at sailing smoothly across the page.

How To Buy Calligraphy Pens Online | How To Do Calligraphy With Pen

It is important to buy a quality pen with both longevity and good performance. You can usually buy calligraphy pens almost anywhere, but buying them online is difficult because you don't get to test out the pen before purchase.

If you're looking to buy calligraphy pens online, there are many sites where you can find them. However, not all of them offer great deals and discounts. Some of them only sell cheap products. The best way to ensure that you're getting a quality product is to shop around. Look for reviews and testimonials from other customers who have bought their pens from different websites.

Our calligraphy fountain pen review site offers a wide variety of high end calligraphy pens. We also provide tips and tricks on how to write beautiful letters. So if you 're looking for a fountain pen that will last forever, check out our website today!

How To Make Faux Calligraphy

How To Make Faux Calligraphy

If you're intimidated at writing with a fountain pen, then you may want to consider giving faux calligraphy a shot. With the faux calligrapher method, you'll be capable of creating beautiful letters today, and it will help you develop good hand-eye coordination that can help you learn to use an actual dip pen properly once you eventually buy one.

With any standard writing instrument, faux calligraphy creates an excellent introduction to dip pen calligrapy. Faux calligraphy is an elegant lettering art form in itself. First, we show you how to create this easy-to-use form of calligraphy, which is fun and accessible for everyone. You'll find inspiration for using these techniques to add beauty to everything, including chalkboards and mail art.

Write The Word Or Phrase

You'll need to pick up an appropriate writing instrument before creating faux calligraphy. You can use any kind of writing utensil, from a regular pen or pencil to chalk or a calligraphy marker. It’s meant for writing words and sentences in cursive, so use it to practice writing them. Make sure there’s enough space between each letter.

Reinforce Downstrokes

After that, you're going to strengthen the strokes used to create the word by using the downstroke again. To do that, you'll need to figure out which strokes are downstrokes. When you draw a line by pulling your pen across paper, you're creating a thick downstroke.

Next, draw lines at an angle perpendicular to your thicker downstrokes so they're parallel to them. New lines should be drawn at the end of each stroke so they follow the contour of your strokes. It doesn't matter whether you start drawing your new lines on the right side of each stroke or the left side of each stroke.

Fill In The Downstroke Reinforcements

After creating all the downstrokes, you can now use your pen to fill in the rest of the strokes. After finishing, the contrast between the strokes in the word should strongly resemble dip pen calligraphic style.

Create A Letterform

Now that you've created a letterform, you can make it look more like a real letter by adding details. For example, you could add flourishes to the ends of the strokes. These flourishes can be made by drawing small circles or dots at the end of the strokes.

To finish off the letterform, you can add some shading. This can be done by filling in the spaces between the strokes with a darker color. If you'd rather not shade the letterform, you could instead paint over it with a lighter color.

Faux Calligraphy Inspiration

Even if you're capable of producing true calligraphy, sometimes using faux calligraphy is better than nothing at all. Maybe you're in a situation when you can't use a fountain pen (e.g., at a work meeting), maybe the writing surface isn't conducive for fountain pen calligraphy, maybe you're just tired of ink spills and spatters from using a fountain pen. Whatever the reason, faux calligraphy is a great way to get started practicing dip pen calligraphy without having to invest in a whole lot of equipment.

Chalkboard Faux Calligraphy

You could argue that you could use a dip pen and black ink on a chalkboard to create beautiful calligraphic art, but the resulting artwork would be small. Chalkboard faux calligraphy allows you to create large letters that are still easily readable.

The first step is to write the phrase or word on the chalkboard. Next, you'll want to apply a coat of chalk. Then, you'll want to wipe away the excess chalk with a rag. Finally, you'll want to let the chalk dry completely.

Faux Calligraphy In Mail Art

You can create beautiful letters using faux calligraphy. Notice that the downstrokes are not completely filled in. If you don't mind this stylistic variation, then there's no need to complete the upstroke.

If you're not familiar with using a dip pen, then you might want to give this technique a shot. Faux calligraphy is an easy way to get started with dip pen calligraphy. However, it's not just designed for beginners. A seasoned calligrapher can also benefit from using this tool for creating unique designs. You can use any of the premium calligraphic worksheets for practicing faux calligraphy.

How To Do Calligraphy With A Normal Pen

There are many different ways to practice calligraphy with a normal pen. One method involves starting with a blank piece of paper. Draw a few simple shapes such as circles and rectangles. Once you have these basic shapes down, you can begin experimenting with other styles.

For instance, you could try out some cursive handwriting. Cursive handwriting is similar to regular handwriting except that the strokes are connected together. It's often used in formal settings, so it's a good style to start with. Below are some imformative tips.


Any regular writing instrument. Use a monoline pen, which means that each stroke you draw has the same thickness. Avoid using brushes because they're not consistent.


Write your words using connected letters in cursive. Try to keep some extra space between each letter. Cursive writing is different than calligraphic writing. First, look at one letter at a time; then, determine which letters are the down strokes. Add a second line on top of the first one, but keep them both aligned.

Make the lines look thicker by filling in the spaces between the strokes. Ensure that the thickness of your letters is consistent throughout the entire letter.

Things To Know Before Jumping Into Calligraphy

Things To Know Before Jumping Into Calligraphy

Calligraphy is a very artistic form of writing. There are many different techniques involved in creating beautiful letters. For example, you may want to experiment with different types of pens and nib sizes. Some people prefer to use a brush calligraphy instead of a pen. The choice is yours!

Blackletter calligraphy is a great way to express yourself, and it's also a great hobby to take up. Whether you're looking to improve your handwriting skills or simply want to spend some quality time with friends and family, blackletter calligraphy is sure to bring joy to your life.

When learning how to do calligraphy, you should always remember that you will never master every aspect of the craft. As long as you enjoy doing it, then you're bound to improve over time. Below are some things to know before jumping into calligraphy.

Learning Calligraphy Is Going To Take A Ton Of Practice

It can be discouraging at first when you're just starting out, but if you practice these drills regularly, your handwriting skills will improve. However, calligraphy and letter writing are specialized skills. Just like you wouldn't learn how to play an instrument overnight, you can't just start practicing calligraphy or letter writing without any training. Practice makes perfect. Lots. Practice regularly and you'll improve faster.

Don't Skip The Calligraphy BASICS

You know how to use a pen, you own some brushes, and you've seen lots of YouTube videos. You should need to know everything before starting. That's right.

As lettering and calligraphying become increasingly popular, and as there are tons of awesome artists selling their "lettering worksheets", it's tempting to just jump right into it. The problem with that approach is that you're just copy­ing someone else's style without understanding the basics.

You must begin by mastering the most basic elements of handwriting before moving on to more advanced techniques. They're called strokes because they look like the strokes we use when writing. Each letter has its own unique set of strokes. Practice the strokes over and over and over again until they become consistent. The more consistently you stroke the pen, the more consistently your letters will be. Don't attempt letters and words until you've mastered the basic strokes. Easy.

Get The Right Lettering Supplies

Yes, there may be people who argue and say that you could start practicing with cheaper materials- just until you learn what you’re doing well enough to use the expensive ones. To some people, this is true. You don't necessarily need expensive equipment to start practicing, but if you're serious about becoming an artist, you'll eventually want to invest in better tools.

The main reason why some brushes, inks, nib/pencils, and paper are not created equally is because they're made from different materials. You may not get the results you want if you don't know which tools to use. It's important to understand the difference between each material so you can choose the best one for your needs.

Connect With Others As Much As You Can

Calligraphy is a solitary art. If you want to make progress, you have to work alone. This means no distractions. No phones, no music, nothing. You have to focus 100% on your practice.

If you're going to spend hours upon hours practicing, you might as well connect with other people who are also trying to improve. Join groups online where you can share tips and tricks. There are even forums dedicated to calligraphers. If you're looking for a place to meet others who love calligraphy, check out online communities such as Facebook Groups, Instagram, Pinterest, Twitter, Tumblr, and Reddit.

Benefits Of Learning Calligraphy

The calligraphy kit is a great gift idea for friends who love to draw, write and paint. With more advanced technology taking over our lives, more and more people are rediscover­ing the therapeutic effects of writing by hand. Over the past five to ten years, there has been an enormous surge in the number of analog products. Notebooks and planners used to be popular items for sale at book stores, but now they're becoming increasingly common at art shops and bullet journals workshops.

Handwriting and calligraphy are not taught anymore in schools, just like they weren't when we were kids. The fact is, this doesn't take away from the importance of handwriting and calligraphy, because as humans, our hands have been writing since we were born, and the act of hand writing itself, whether calligraphy or handwriting, has many benefits. Below are some of the reasons why learning how to write by hand is beneficial:

It Is Meditative And Relaxing

When teaching people how to write by hand using a pointed pen, they often mention that it is very therapeutic, relaxing, or even meditative. Because when you're only focused on making one stroke at a time instead of focusing on relaxing your entire body, each stroke slows down the rate of your breathing, which makes your body feel relaxed. As you continue writing, your mind starts forgetting about your problems, which makes it an excellent activity for meditation and relaxing your body.

It Helps Develops Fine Motor Skills And Memory Retention

To be able to write beautiful letters using a fountain pen, you must first learn how to use the pen properly. This stimulates the motor areas of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, the basi­gala­lias, and the cerebellum. It engages both the language and logic portions of the brain at the same time. Research has shown that children retain the spellings of words much better if they write them out by hand instead of typing them into an electronic device. Learning calligraphy and handwriting can be an incredibly effective way to improve hand-eye coordination and enhance memory recall.

We Are Most Creative When We Are Using Our Hands

Our bodies get disconnected from our brains when we're behind any electronic device. Keeping our hands moving and our body active helps us think at a higher level by encouraging our brains to keep working. Here is where we can inject some fun into our lives, and allow ourselves to be creative. Making calligraphy artwork lets us use our hands, and composing words gives us an opportunity to express ourselves creatively.

It Helps Us Understand Our Own Thoughts And Promote Critical Thinking

When we're engaged with problem-solving, it has been shown that the best solutions come from writing things out, manipulating the problem with our own hands, or using our bodies to solve the problem. Writing helps us think through our ideas critically. Whenever we encounter a problem, we should write down our thoughts. One of the main reasons we keep writing down things in a journal is because we want to be able to sort out our complicated feelings. It helps us understand ourselves better, uncover how we feel, and discover potential solutions for our problems.

It Helps Us Gain Self-confidence When We Improve Our Skills

It's not easy to learn calligraphy style. You need lots of patience and practice. As we learn new things, we might feel frustrated at first, but once we see the beauty of what we're doing, we become proud of ourselves and gain more confidence. Learning and mastering new things challenges us to believe that we have the ability not just to overcome them but to excel at them.

It Facilitates Connections With Other People

Finally, building strong relationships with others is one of the reasons why people enjoy calligraphy style. When we write something that makes sense to someone, and they instantly react positively to it, we know that our words have reached them. We know that we're communicating with each other. This moment is very special, and it's a wonderful time to enjoy and cherish.

If you want to learn calligraphy, or if you think someone close to you might enjoy learning it, then consider taking up this art form. There are many different ways to make beautiful calligraphy, so there's no reason to limit yourself. If you've never tried it before, start small. Start with simple letterings, like your name, or maybe even a quote. Once you get comfortable with the basics, try making a few lines on a piece of paper. Then move onto a larger surface, such as a canvas or wood panel. The possibilities are endless!


How to do calligraphy with a pen is difficult. But it takes practice, patience, and dedication. So, don't give up too soon. Keep practicing until you master the skill. After all, it's only through hard work that we achieve success.

Learning calligraphy is a great way to develop your creativity and hone your skills. It also allows you to connect with others, and build meaningful relationships. Calligraphy is a wonderful hobby that will help you grow as a person.


How to create faux calligraphy?

To create faux calligraphy, you'll first want to choose your writing utensil.

What is Faux Calligraphy?

Additionally, faux calligraphy is a beautiful lettering art form in its own right.

What are the Downstroke reinforcements?

Next, draw lines that are parallel to your downstrokes.

How do I fill in the downstroke reinforcements?

Now that you have created all the downstroke reinforcements, you can use your pen to fill them in!

How do I hold my pen?

Hold your pen at an unchanging angle.

How do I learn to write calligraphy?

To learn how to write calligraphy, you need to be familiar with the three most basic calligraphy skills described.

What do you need to write your calligraphy?

Luckily, too, they're mostly simple and inexpensive: calligraphic writing tool such as a pen or brush • Ink, or similar • Paper (or another writing medium) • A smooth, hard, flat supporting surface • A seat at a comfortable height • Optional: a ruler and pencil (for lines to write along) It's also an advantage to write your calligraphy on a sloping surface.

How do I use the nib?

Lead the nib gently across the paper, moving it backward or sideways from the direction it's pointing in.

What is a thick-and-thin nib?

(Copperplate nibs work differently!) This broad, flat structure means that the nib creates a distinctive ‘thick-and-thin' effect when it moves over the page, and this effect is what makes calligraphic letters look so nice.

What is a calligraphic nib?

Nearly always in the West, a ‘calligraphy nib' means one that is broad and flat instead of an ordinary rounded point such as a biro or fountain-pen nib.

What are the skills you need to be successful in pen writing?

Even if you already know how to write calligraphy, it's worth refreshing these three core skills: Keep the pen-angle constant; Lead the nib, don't push it; Make parallel lines and even curves.

What is the difference between drawing lines and keeping a pen-nib?

Drawing lines so they are at the same angle as each other (skill no. 3) is a different action from keeping your pen-nib at a constant angle (skill no.

What are the different parallel lines?

You can keep your pen-nib at the same angle and still draw vertical parallel lines … horizontal parallel lines … and sloping parallel lines.

How do I write calligraphy?

When those skills are separate in your head and (more importantly) in your hand, you've mastered the basics of how to write calligraphy.

What is the 'Five Options' Calligraphy?

(If you're wondering how to write calligraphy with different sorts of tools such as felt-pens, square brushes, etc.

Why do you need a pen?

The pen is the best tool for creating calligraphy because it allows you to control the pressure you apply to the paper.

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